10 minute read.Last Modified 2023-11-30 10:15 EST
The Certificates widget on the Credentials > Certificates screen displays certificates added to SCALE, and allows you to add new certificates, or download, delete, or edit the name of an existing certificate. Each TrueNAS comes equipped with an internal, self-signed certificate that enables encrypted access to the web interface.
deletes the certificate from your server.
Each certificate listed on the widget is a link that opens the **Edit Certificate screen.
Add opens the Add Certificate wizard.
The Add Certificate wizard screens step users through configuring a new certificate on TrueNAS SCALE. The wizard has five different configuration screens, one for each step in the certificate configuration process:
Many of the settings in the Add Certificate wizard are the same as those in the Add CA and Add Certificate Signing Request wizards.Before creating a new certificate, configure a new CA if you do not already have one on your system. Creating a internal certificate requires a CA exist on the system.
The Identifier and Type options specify the certificate name and choose whether to use it for internal or local systems, or import an existing certificate. The selection in Type changes setting options on this screen, the Certificate Options and Extra Constraints screens, and determines if the Certificate Subject screen displays at all.
Users can also select a predefined certificate extension from the Profiles dropdown list.
Setting Description Name Required. Enter a descriptive identifier for this certificate. Type Select the certificate type from the dropdown list. Internal Certificate uses system-managed CAs for certificate issuance. Import Certificate allows you to import an existing certificate onto the system. Import Certificate removes the Profiles field, changes other screens and fields displayed on other wizard screens. Profile Select a predefined certificate extension. Options are HTTPS RSA Certificate or HTTPS ECC Certificate. Choose a profile that best matches your certificate usage scenario.
The selection in Type changes setting options on this screen, the Certificate Options and Extra Constraints screens, and determines if the Certificate Subject screen displays at all.
Certificate Options settings choose the signing certificate authority (CSR), the type of private key type to use (as well as the number of bits in the key used by the cryptographic algorithm), the cryptographic algorithm the certificate uses, and how many days the certificate authority lasts.
The Certificate Options settings change based on the selection in Type on the Identifier and Type screen.
The Key Type selection changes fields displayed. RSA is the default setting in Key Type.
The Signing Certificate Authority field requires you have a CA already configured on your system.
If you do not have a Certificate Authority (CA) configured on your system, exit the Add Certificate wizard and add the required CA.
Setting Description Signing Certificate Authority Required. Select a previously imported or created CA from the dropdown list. Key Type Required. Select an option (RSA or EC) from the dropdown list. See why is elliptic curve cryptography not widely used, compared to RSA? for more information about key types. Selecting EC displays the EC Curve field and removes the Key Length field. Key Length Required. Displays when Key Type is set to RSA. The number of bits in the key used by the cryptographic algorithm. For security reasons, a minimum key length of 2048 is recommended. EC Curve Displays when Key Type is set to EC. Select the Brainpool or SECP curve that fits your scenario. Brainpool curves can be more secure than SECP curves but SECP curves can be faster. Options are BrainpoolP512R1, BrainpoolP384R1, BrainpoolP256R1, SECP256R1, SECP384R1, SECP521R1, and ed25519. See Elliptic Curve performance: NIST vs Brainpool for more information. Digest Algorithm Required. Select the cryptographic algorithm to use from the dropdown list. Options are SHA1, SHA224, SHA256, SHA384 or SHA512. Only change the default SHA256 if the organization requires a different algorithm. Lifetime Required. Enter the number days for the lifetime of the CA.
Setting Type on the Identifier and Type screen to Import Certificate changes the options displayed on the Certificate Options configuration screen.
Setting Description Certificate Required. Paste the certificate for the CA into this field. CSR exists on this system Select if importing a certificate for which a CSR exists on this system. Displays the Certificate Signing Request dropdown. Certificate Signing Request Select the existing CSR from the dropdown list. Private Key Required. Paste the private key associated with the certificate when available. Provide a key at least 1024 bits long. Passphrase Enter the passphrase for the private key. Confirm Passphrase Re-enter the passphrase for the private key.
The Certificate Subject step lets users define the location, name, and email for the organization using the certificate.
Users can also enter the system fully-qualified hostname (FQDN) and any additional domains for multi-domain support.
The Certificate Subject screen does not display when Type on Internal Certificate is set to Import Certificate.
Setting Description Country Required. Select the country of the organization from the dropdown list. State Required. Enter the state or province of the organization. Locality Required. Enter the location of the organization. For example, the city. Organization Required. Enter the name of the company or organization. Organizational Unit Enter the organizational unit of the entity. Required. Enter the email address of the person responsible for the CA. Common Name Enter the fully qualified host name (FQHN) of the system. This mname must be unique within a certificate chain. Subject Alternate Names Required. Enter additional domains to secure for multi-domain support. Separate each domain by pressing Enter. For example, if the primary domain is example.com, entering www.example.com* secures both addresses.
The Extra Constraints step contains certificate extension options.
- Basic Constraints that when enabled limits the path length for a certificate chain.
- Authority Key Identifier that when enabled provides a means of identifying the public key corresponding to the private key used to sign a certificate.
- Key Usage that when enable defines the purpose of the public key contained in a certificate.
- Extended Key Usage that when enable to further refines key usage extensions.
The Extra Constraints settings change based on the selection in Type on the Identifier and Type screen.
After selecting Basic Constraints, Authority Key Identifier, Extended Key Usage, or Key Usage, each displays more settings that option needs.
Setting Description Basic Constraints Select to activate this extension to identify whether the certificate subject is a CA and the maximum depth of valid certification paths that include this certificate. Options are CA or Critical Extension. Selecting Basic Constraints displays the Path Length and Basic Constraints Config fields. Path Length Displays after selecting Basic Constraints. Enter a value of 0 or greater to set how many non-self-issued intermediate certificates can follow this certificate in a valid certification path. Entering 0 allows a single additional certificate to follow in the certificate path. Value cannot be less than 0. Basic Constraints Config Select the option to specify whether to use the certificate for a Certificate Authority and whether this extension is critical. Clients must recognize critical extension to prevent rejection. Web certificates typically require you to disable CA and enable Critical Extension in Basic Constraints. Authority Key Identifier Select to activate this extension. The authority key identifier extension provides a means of identifying the public key corresponding to the private key used to sign a certificate. This extension is used where the issuer has multiple signing keys (either due to multiple concurrent key pairs or due to changeover). The identification might be based on either the key identifier (the subject key identifier in the issuer certificate) or on the issuer name and serial number. See RFC 3280, section 184.108.40.206 for more information. Displays the Authority Key Config field. Authority Key Config Displays after selecting Authority Key Identifier. Select the option to specify whether the issued certificate should include authority key identifier information, and whether the extension is critical. Critical extension must be recognized by the client or be rejected. Options are Authority Cert Issuer and or Critical Extension. Multiple selections display separated by a comma (,). Extended Key Usage Select to activate this certificate extension. The Extended Key Usage extension identifies and limits valid uses for this certificate, such as client authentication or server authentication. See RFC 3280, section 220.127.116.11 for details. Displays the Usages field. Usages Displays after selecting Extended Key Usage. Select the option to identify the purpose of this public key from the dropdown list. Typically used for the end entity certificates. You can select multiple usages that display separated by a comma (,). Options are ANY_EXTENDED_KEY_USAGE, CERTIFICATE_TRANSPARENCY, CLIENT_AUTH, CODE_SIGNING, EMAIL_PROTECTION, IPSEC_IKE, KERBEROS_PKINIT_KDC, OCSP_SIGNING, SERVER_AUTH, SMARTCARD_LOGON or TIME_STAMPING. Do not mark this extension critical when set to ANY_EXTENDED_KEY_USAGE. The purpose of the certificate must be consistent with both extensions when using both Extended Key Usage and Key Usage extensions. See [RFC 3280, section 18.104.22.168 for more details. Critical Extension Select to identify this extension as critical for the certificate. The certificate-using system must recognize the critical extensions to prevent this certificate being rejected. The certificate-using system can ignore extensions identified as not critical and still approve the certificate. Key Usage Select to activate this certificate extension. The key usage extension defines the purpose (e.g., encipherment, signature, certificate signing) of the key contained in the certificate. The usage restriction might be employed when a key that can be used for more than one operation is to be restricted. For example, when an RSA key should be used only to verify signatures on objects other than public key certificates and CRLs, the Digital Signature bits are asserted. Likewise, when an RSA key should be used only for key management, the Key Encipherment bit is asserted. See RFC 3280, section 22.214.171.124 for more information. Displays the Key Usage Config field. Key Usage Config Displays after selecting Extended Key Usage or Key Usage. Select the option that specifies valid key usages for this certificate. Options are Digital Signature, Content Commitment, Key Encipherment, Data Encipherment, Key Agreement, Key Cert Sign, CRL Sign, Encipher Only, Decipher Only or Critical Extension. Web certificates typically need at least Digital Signature and possibly Key Encipherment or Key Agreement, while other applications might need other usages.
When Type on Identifier and Type is set to Import Certificate the Import Certificate options screen displays.
Setting Description Certificate Required. Paste the certificate for the CA into this field. CSR exists on this system Select if importing a certificate for which a CSR exists on this system. Displays the Certificate Signing Request dropdown. Certificate Signing Request Select an existing CSR from the dropdown list. Private Key Required. Paste the private key associated with the certificate when available. Provide a key at least 1024 bits long. Passphrase Enter the passphrase for the private key. Confirm Passphrase Re-enter the passphrase for the private key.
The final step screen is the Confirm Options that displays the certificate Type, Key Type, Key Length, Digest Algorithm, Lifetime, Country, and any configured Usages.
Save adds the certificate to SCALE. Back returns to previous screens to make changes before you save. Next advances to the next screen in the sequence to return to Confirm Options.
The certificate listed on the Certificates widget is a link that opens the Edit Certificate screen.
The Edit Certificate screen displays the fixed Subject settings, the type, path, and other details about that certificate that are not editable. You can enter an alphanumeric name for the certificate in Identifier if you want to rename the certificate. You can use underscore (_) and or dash (-) characters in the name.
View/Download Certificate opens a window with the certificate string. Use theclipboard icon to copy the certificate to the clipboard or Download to download the certificate to your server. Keep the certificate in a secure area where you can back up and save it.
View/Download Key opens a window with the certificate private key. Use theclipboard icon to copy the public key to the clipboard or Download to download the key to your server. Keep the private key in a secure area where you can back up and save it.